Siva Samhita 1


  1. Methods of liberation and philosophical standpoints
  2. Nadis, internal fire, and working of the jiva
  3. Winds in the body, importance of the guru, the four stages of Yoga, the five elemental visualizations and four asanas
  4. Eleven mudras and yogic attainments
  5. Obstacles to liberation, the four types of aspirants, technique of shadow gazing, internal sound, esoteric centers and energies, the seven lotuses, the "king of kings of yogas", and a global mantra

Existence one only.

I. The jnana (Gnosis) alone is eternal; it is without beginning or end; there exists no other real substance.
Diversities which we see in the world are results of sense-conditions; when the latter cease, then this Jnana alone, and nothing else, remains.

2-3. I, Ishvara, the lover of my devotees, and Giver of spiritual emancipation to all creatures, thus declare the science of yoganasasana (the exposition of Yoga). In it are discarded all those doctrines of disputants, which lead to false knowledge. It is for the spiritual disenthralment of persons whose minds are undistracted and fully turned towards Me.

Differences of opinion.

4. Some praise truth, others purification and asceticism; some praise forgiveness, others equality and sincerity.

5. Some praise alms-giving, others laud sacrifices made in honor of one's ancestors; some praise action {karma), others think dispassion (vairagya) to be the best.

6. Some wise persons praise the performance of the duties of the householder; other authorities hold up fire- sacrifice &c, as the highest.

7. Some praise mantrayoga, others the frequenting of places of pilgrimage. Thus are the ways which people declare emancipation.

8. Being thus diversely engaged in this world, even those who still know what actions are good and what are evil, though free from sin, become subject to bewilderment.

9. Persons who follow these doctrines, having committed good and bad actions, constantly wander in the worlds, in the cycle of births and deaths, bound by dire necessity.

10. Others, wiser among many, and eagerly devoted to the investigation of the occult, declare that the souls are many and eternal, and omnipresent.

I I . Others say, "Only those things can be said to exist which are perceived by the senses and nothing besides them; where is heaven or hell?" Such is their firm belief.

12. Others believe the world to be a current of consciousness and no material entity; some call the void as the greatest. Others believe in two essences - Matter (prakriti) and Spirit (purusa).

13-14. Thus believing in widely different doctrines, with faces turned away from the supreme goal, they think, according to their understanding and education, that this universe is without God; others believe there is a God, basing their assertions on various irrefutable arguments, founded on texts declaring difference between soul and God, and anxious to establish the existence of God.

15-16. These and many other sages with various different denominations, have been declared in the Shastras as leaders of the human mind into delusion. It is not possible to describe fully the doctrines of these persons so fond of quarrel and contention; people thus wander in this universe, being driven away from the path of emancipation.

Yoga the only true method
17. Having studied all the Shastras and having pondered over them well, again and again, this Yoga Sastra has been found to be the only true and firm doctrine.

18. Since by Yoga all this verily is known as a certainty, all exertion should be made to acquire it. What is the necessity then of any other doctrines?
19. This Yoga Shastra, now being declared by us, is a very secret doctrine, only to be revealed to a high-souled pious devotee throughout the three worlds.


20. There are two systems (as found in the Vedas). Karmakanda (ritualism) and jnanakanda (wisdom).
Jnanakanda and karmakanda are again each subdivided into two parts.

21. The karmakanda is twofold - consisting of injunctions and prohibitions.

22. Prohibited acts when done, will certainly bring forth sin; from performance of enjoined acts there certainly results merit.

23. The injunctions are threefold - nitya (regular), naimittika (occasional), and kamya (optional). By the non- performance of nitya or daily rites there accrues sin; but by their performance no merit is gained. On the other hand, the occasional and optional duties, if done or left undone, produce merit or demerit.

24. Fruits of actions are twofold - heaven or hell. The heavens are of various kinds and so also hells are diverse.

25. The good actions are verily heaven, and sinful deeds are verily hell; the creation is the natural outcome of karma and nothing else.

26. Creatures enjoy many pleasures in heaven; many intolerable pains are suffered in hell.

27. From sinful acts pain, from good acts happiness, results. For the sake of happiness, men constantly perform good actions.

28. When the sufferings for evil actions are gone through, then there take place re-births certainly; when the fruits of good actions have been exhausted, then also, verily, the result is the same.

29. Even in heaven there is experiencing of pain by seeing the higher enjoyment of others; verily, there is no doubt of it that this whole universe is full of sorrow.

30. The classifiers of karma have divided it into two parts; good and bad actions; they are the veritable bondage of embodied souls each in its turn.

31. Those who are not desirous of enjoying the fruits of their actions in this or the next world, should renounce all actions which are done with an eye to their fruits, and having similarly discarded the attachment for the daily and the naimittika acts, should employ themselves in the practice of Yoga.


32. The wise Yogi, having realized the truth of karmakanda (works), should renounce them; and having left both virtue and vice, he must engage in jnanakanda (knowledge).

33. The Vedic texts, - "The spirit ought to be seen," - "About it one must hear", &c, are the real saviors and givers of true knowledge. They must be studied with great care.

34. That Intelligence, which incites the functions into the paths of virtue or vice, am I. All this universe, moveable and immovable, is from me; all things are preserved by me; all are absorbed into me (at the time of pralaya; because there exists nothing but the spirit and I am that spirit - there exists nothing else.

35. As in innumerable cups full of water, many reflections of the sun are seen, but the substance is the same; similarly individuals, like cups are innumerable, but the vivifying spirit, like the sun, is one.

36. As in a dream the one soul creates many objects by mere willing; but on awaking everything vanishes but the one soul; so is this universe.

37. As through illusion a rope appears like a snake, or a pearl-shell like silver; similarly, all this universe is superimposed in the Paramatma (the Universal Spirit).

38. As, when the knowledge of the rope is obtained, the erroneous notion of its being a snake does not remain; so, by the arising of the knowledge of self, vanishes this universe based on illusion.

39. As, when the knowledge of the mother-of-pearl is obtained, the erroneous notion of its being silver does not remain; so, through the knowledge of spirit, the world always appears a delusion.

40. As, when a man besmears his eyelids with the collyrium prepared from the fat of frogs, a bamboo appears like a serpent, so the world appears in the Paramatma, owing to the delusive pigment of habit and imagination.

41. As through knowledge of rope the serpent appears a delusion; similarly, through spiritual knowledge, the world. As through jaundiced eyes white appears yellow; similarly, through the disease of ignorance, this world appears in the spirit - an error very difficult to be removed.

42. As when the jaundice is removed the patient sees the colour as it is, so when delusive ignorance is destroyed, the true nature of the spirit is made manifest.

43. As a rope can never become a snake, in the past, present or future; so the spirit which is beyond all gunas and which is pure, never becomes the universe.

44. Some wise men, well-versed in Scriptures, receiving the knowledge of spirit, have declared that even Devas like Indra, etc., are non-eternal, subject to birth and death, and liable to destruction.

45. Like a bubble in the sea rising through the agitation of the wind, this transitory world arises from the Spirit.

46. The Unity exists always; the Diversity does not exist always; there comes a time when it ceases: two-fold, three-fold, and manifold distinctions arise only through illusion.

47. Whatever was, is or will be, either formed or formless, in short, all this universe is superimposed on the Supreme Spirit.

48. Suggested by the Lords of suggestion comes out avidya. It is born of untruth, and its very essence is unreal. How can this world with such antecedents (foundations) be true?

The Spirit.

49. All this universe, moveable or unmovable, has come out of Intelligence. Renouncing everything else, take shelter in it (Intelligence).

50. As space pervades ajar both inside and out, similarly within and beyond this ever-changing universe, there exists one Universal Spirit.

51. As the space pervading the five false states of matter does not mix with them, so the Spirit does not mix with this ever-changing universe.

52. From Devas down to this material universe all are pervaded by one Spirit. There is one satchitananda (Being, Consciousness, and Bliss) all-pervading and secondless.

53. Since it is not illuminated by another, therefore it is self-luminous; and for that self-luminosity, the very nature of Spirit is Light.

54. Since the Spirit in its nature is not limited by time, or space, it is therefore infinite, all-pervading and entirety itself.

55. Since the Spirit is unlike this world, which is composed of five states of matter, that are false and subject to destruction, therefore, it is eternal. It is never destroyed.

56. Save and beyond it, there is no other substance, therefore, it is one; without it everything else is false; therefore, it is True Existence.

57. Since in this world created by ignorance, the destruction of sorrow means the gaining of happiness; and, through Gnosis, immunity from all sorrow ensues; therefore, the Spirit is Bliss.

58. Since by Gnosis is destroyed the Ignorance, which is the cause of the universe; therefore, the Spirit is Gnosis; and this Gnosis is consequently eternal.

59. Since in time this manifold universe takes its origin, therefore, there is One who is verily the Self, unchanging through all times. Who is one, and unthinkable.

60. All these external substances will perish in the course of time; (but) that Spirit which is indestructable by word (will exist) without a second.

61. Neither ether, air, fire, water, earth, nor their combinations, nor the Devas, are perfect; the Spirit alone is so.

Yoga and Maya.

62. Having renounced all false desires and abandoned all false worldly chains, the Yogi sees certainly in his own spirit the Universal Spirit by the self.

63. Having seen the Spirit, that brings forth happiness, in his own spirit by the help of the self, he forgets this universe, and enjoys the ineffable bliss of Samadhi (profound meditation.)
64. Maya (illusion) is the mother of the universe. Not from any other principle has the universe been created; when this maya is destroyed, the world certainly does not exist.

65. He, to whom this world is but the pleasure-ground of maya, therefore, contemptible and worthless, cannot find any happiness in riches, body, etc., nor in pleasures.

66. This world appears in three different aspects to men - either friendly, inimical, or indifferent; such is always found in worldly dealing; there is distinction also in substances, as they are good, bad or indifferent.

67. That one Spirit, through differentiation, verily becomes a son, a father, etc. The Sacred Scriptures have demonstrated the universe to be the freak of maya (illusion). The Yogi destroys this phenomenal universe by realizing that it is but the result of adhyaropa (superimposition) and by means of aparada (refutation of a wrong belief).

Definition of a Paramahamsa.

68. When a person is free from the infinite distinctions and states of existence as caste, individuality etc., then he can say that he is indivisible intelligence, and pure Unit.

Emanation or Evolution.

69. The Lord willed to create his creatures; from His will came out avidya (Ignorance), the mother of this false universe.

70. There takes place the conjunction between the Pure Brahma and avidya, from which arises Brahma, from which comes out the akasa.

71. From the akasa emanated the air; from the air came the fire; from fire - water; and from water came the earth. This is the order of subtle emanation.

72. From ether, air; from the air and ether combined came fire; from the triple compound of ether, air and fire came water; from the combination of ether, air, fire and water was produced the (gross) earth.

73. The quality of ether is sound; of air motion and touch. Form is the quality of fire, and taste of water. And smell is the quality of earth. There is no gainsaying this.

74. Akasa has one quality; air two, fire three, water four, and earth five qualities, viz, sound, touch, taste, form and smell. This has been declared by the wise.

75-76. Form is perceived through he eyes, smell through the nose, taste through the tongue, touch through the skin and sound through the ear. These are verily the organs of perception.

77. From Intelligence has come out all this universe, movable and immovable; whether or not its existence can be inferred, the 'All Intelligence" One does exist.

Absorption or Involution.

78. The earth becomes subtle and is dissolved in water; water is resolved into fire; fire similarly merges in air; air gets absorption in ether, and ether is resolved in avidya (Ignorance), which merges into the Great Brahma.

79. There are two forces - viksepa, (the out-going energy) and avarana (the transforming energy) which are of great potentiality and power, and whose form is happiness. The great maya, when non-intelligent and material, has three attributes sattva (rhythm) rajas (energy) and tamas (inertia).

80. The non-intelligent form of maya covered by the avarana force (concealment), manifests itself as the universe, owing to the nature of viksepa force.

81. When the avidya has an excess of tamas, then it manifests itself as Durga: the intelligence which presides over her is called Isvara. When the avidya has an excess of sattva, it manifests itself as the beautiful Lakshimi; the Intelligence which presides over her is called Vishnu.

82. When the avidya has an excess of rajas, it manifests itself as the wise Saraswati; the intelligence which presides over her is known as Brahma.

83. Gods like Siva, Brahma, Vishnu, etc., are all seen in the great Spirit; bodies and all material objects are the various products of avidya.

84. The wise have thus explained the creation of the world - tattwas (elements) and non-tattwas (non-elements) are thus produced - not otherwise.

85. All things are seen as finite, etc. (endowed with qualities, etc.), and there arise various distinctions merely through words and names; but there is no real difference.

86. Therefore, the things do exist; the great and glorious One that manifests them, alone exists; though things are false and unreal, yet, as the reflection of the real, they, for the time being, appear real.

87. The One Entity, blissful, entire and all-pervading, alone exists, and nothing else; he who constantly realizes this knowledge is freed from death and the sorrow of the world-wheel.

88. When through the knowledge that all is illusory perception (aropa) and by intellectual refutation (apavada) of other doctrines, this universe is resolved into the one, then, there exists that One and nothing else; then this is clearly perceived by the mind.

Karma clothes the Jiva with body.

89. From the Annamiya Kosa (the physical vehicle) of the father, and in accordance with its past karma, the human soul is re-incarnated; therefore, the wise consider this beautiful body as a punishment, for the suffering of the effects of the past karma.

90. This temple of suffering and enjoyment (human body), made up of flesh, bones, nerves, marrow, blood, and intersected with blood vessels etc., is only for the sake of suffering of sorrow.

91. This body, the abode of Brahma, and composed of five elements and known as Brahmanda (the egg of Brahma or microcosm) has been made for the enjoyment of pleasure or suffering of pain.

92. From the self-combination of the Spirit which is Siva and the Matter which is Sakti, and, through their inherent interaction on each other, all creatures are born.

93. From the fivefold combination of all subtle elements, in this universe, gross innumerable objects are produced. The intelligence that is confined in them, through karma, is called the jiva. All this world is derived from the five elements. The jiva is the enjoyer of the fruits of action.

94. In conformity with the effects of the past karma of the jivas, I regulate all destinies. Jiva is immaterial, and is in all things; but it enters the material body to enjoy the fruits of karma.

95. Bound in the chain of matter by their karma, the jivas receive various names. In this world, the come again and again to undergo the consequences of their karma.

96. When the fruits of karma have been enjoyed, the jiva is absorbed in the Parambrahma.